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Empty Sella Syndrome

Empty Sella Syndrome
Empty Sella Syndrome

Empty sella syndrome occurs in two different conditions as primary and secondary.

Primary empty sella syndrome

This situation occurs as a result of the overflow of the arachnoid membrane (brain membrane) into the anatomical structure called sella turcica. It can be caused by recurrent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsations or mass effect. The sella enlarges and the pituitary gland may become compressed. Its incidence in the general population is 8-35%. It is 5 times more common in women than men. Most such patients are middle-aged, obese, and hypertensive women. It is more common in patients with pituitary tumors. Patients most often complain of headache. Later symptoms are dizziness, epileptic seizures, visual disturbances, menstrual irregularities, milk coming from the breasts; Rarely, nasal CSF can be observed. The diagnosis can be made by the presence of deterioration in the pituitary hormone profile and by brain MRI. In its treatment, it usually does not require surgery unless there is no nasal CSF.

Secondary empty sella syndrome

It is the occurrence of visual disturbances after a successful pituitary tumor surgery. It occurs due to the prolapse of the optic chiasm (the anatomical structure formed by the optic nerve) into the sella.


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