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Arteriovenous Malformation


Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) are abnormal blood vessels with arterial blood flow fed directly by venous drainage without capillary systems. In other words, they are vascular system anomalies that occur with a connection that should not be between the vein and the artery. They are congenital anomalies. It can occur anywhere on the body. It has a life-threatening feature due to brain hemorrhage and damage to neural tissues in those with a brain location.

Although the cause is not known exactly, it is attributed to multifactorial causes. It is said to develop due to genetic mutation, angiogenic stimulation or angiopathic reaction that develops after brain ischemia.

Its incidence is 1.34 / 100.000. It is estimated that 12% of the AVM cases show symptoms, while the rest do not have symptoms. While the mortality rate is 10-15%, the morbidity rate is 30-50%.


Arteriovenous Malformation Symptoms


According to the location in the brain, the following symptoms occur:


  • Celebral hemorrhage

  • Epilepsy

  • Ischemia

  • Ringing and noise in the ears

  • Development of a stroke

  • Findings of increased intracranial pressure; headache, nausea, vomiting

  • In rare cases; growth retardation, hydrocephalus, heart failure in infants


Arteriovenous Malformation Diagnosis


The diagnosis of brain AVMs is made by CT or MR imaging. However, the relationship between vessels, feeding vessels, and accompanying aneurysms are diagnosed by brain angiography.


Arteriovenous Malformation Treatment


Treatment options are as follows. The patient's condition, location and size of the AVM have an important place in the surgeon's decision.


Surgery: If surgical risk is high for the patient, other alternative treatments are considered.


Radiotherapy: Stereotactic radiosurgery; 2.5-3 cm. And it can be used in shopping malls with lower nidus and deep shopping malls.


Endovascular technique: Embolization makes surgery easier to perform before surgery. It is used as an auxiliary therapy.

Dr. Tamer Tekin




Cerebral hemorrhage

Cerebral hemorrhage

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